Thursday, April 2, 2020
Studies show that people misuse drugs because of a number of reasons that are yet to be identified, but the costs paid are very high. This implies that the outcomes of drug abuse are critical to the society. It is identified that drug abuse is dangerous to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life, particularly in terms of behaviour because it affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction and relationships in society.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Substance Abuse Assessment and Intervention Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A strong connection between crime and substance abuse exist meaning that misuse of drugs is a major cause of social crimes, such as robbery, rape, carjacking, and aggravated assault. Generating an effective treatment plan that would resolve issues affecting a drug addict is always an uphill task that many counsellors are yet to come into terms with. In this regard, it is proven through research that the best prevention and intervention strategy is applicable at childhood and adolescence whereby the young people are educated on the dangers of drug abuse. A 2010 national report on housing survey in the United States established that over 22 million people in the United States utilize drugs on daily basis (Murphy, 2008). A further study revealed that over seven percent of American teenagers are binge drinkers. A number of factors influence individuals to utilize drugs. In the case of Lisa, drug abuse affects her behaviour greatly because it endangers the lives of other people. She threatens her marriage partner with a knife whenever she is under the influence of an illicit drug. The behaviour of her father and her early childhood experiences affected her behaviour tremendously. In the case of Lisa, her family background is to blame for her current tribulations. It is reported that she is a Mexican heterosexual with two children aged eight years, yet her behaviour does not match t hose of an ordinary mother. She was exposed to drug abuse at a very tender age of twelve. Even though she no longer uses lethal drugs, such as cocaine, she is addicted to some drugs, which has considerably affected her behaviour. Her family was poor and lived in slums, with poor economic and social conditions. Her primary socialization took place in a slum area whereby she was exposed to hardships, such as being forced to fight to prove her strength. She could always witness her father beating his wife. She grew up knowing that fighting is acceptable in society hence threatening her boyfriend with a knife is not a mistake.Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As she joined school, her socialization was not any different since she could easily join a gang that harassed other students in school. When asked to explain the reasons for her behaviour, she does not really understand why she behaves the way she does. The only thing she remembers is her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice getting loud. She even admits that she is simply doing what his father did to her mother. This shows that fighting and the use of drugs is natural to her. Biological Predisposition LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour can be understood from a biological point of view through the study of genetics. This is what psychologists refer to as biological predisposition. The concept suggests that an individual is likely to behave in a certain way because of the genetic makeup. This implies that people with similar genes would likely show some symptoms of a psychological disorder or a disease. Twins could portray different psychological conditions mainly because of biological predispositions, but not biological determinant. Biological determinant is different because it influences members of the same family in a similar way, but biological predisposition means that an individual could pick up a certain condition or behavi our. In other words, picking a particular condition or disease from parents is not guaranteed. For biological predisposition to take place, certain stressors should be present, which forces an individual to pick up the condition. Lisa picked up her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s cruel behaviour mainly because of the environment in which she was brought up. The environment acted as a stressor that allowed Lisa to pick up the violent behaviour from the father (Barraca, Yarto, Olea, 2000). Research shows that an individual cannot easily pick up behaviour from parents because of the prevailing conditions. The environment could be different meaning the conduct of an individual would definitely differ from that of her or her parents. If the conditions are similar, there is a high likelihood that an individual will inherit certain actions from his or her parents. This is true for the case of Lisa who inherited violent behaviour from the father. It is reported that her father used to fight LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother daily. Whenever Lisa engages in armed conflicts, she hears her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. When designing a treatment plan, biological predisposition is an important factor to consider.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Substance Abuse Assessment and Intervention Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Family considerations The family is the basic unit of social development meaning that it influences the life of an individual in a number of ways. The family is known to be a primary socializing agent implying that it plays a crucial role in moulding the behaviour of children at an early age. However, the media and other agents of socialization, such as the polity, are overtaking the role of the family. The family influenced Lisa since peace and tranquillity were rare in her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s home. The father was extremely violent while the rest of the family members could comfortably incite children to fight as they watched. To understand LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, the role of the family should be evaluated. Exposure to violent conduct might perhaps affect the position of an individual in society. In this regard, an individual would not be able to execute his or her functions appropriately owing to the early childhood experiences. LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s family background is affecting her relationship, which might lead to complexities, such as death and injury. When designing a treatment plan for the patient in the case presented above, understanding the role of the family would be crucial (Caldwell, Woolley, Caldwell, 2007). The history of LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s family should be comprehended extensively before offering any advice. Cultural Consideration Culturally competent treatment plan would demand that the values of the Lisa and her boyfriend be respected and be incorporated into the treatment designing process. The cause of LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s violent behaviour should be interpreted from a cultural perspectiv e since not all cultures have a similar definition of violent conduct. In some cultures, children are informed right away if a traumatizing event takes place. Research supports the idea that cultural factors have enormous influence on bio-psychological experiences regarding violence in children. This implies that the reactions of Lisa could be a result of cultural factors since she has always been exposed to violence. This shows that ethno-cultural aspects, such as religion and family values, play a critical role as far as vulnerability of an individual to violent behaviour is concerned. Lisa could be manifesting violent behaviour mainly because of her cultural background whereby children are allowed to engage in fights to prove their strength. The way she would respond to the treatment plan depends on cultural factors. In this regard, the counsellor will have a number of roles to play as far as the influence of cultural factors is concerned.Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first thing the psychologists would do is to recognize cultural disparities in the biased insight of trauma and response. Moreover, the counsellor would need to comprehend the role of values in the understanding of shock and revitalization process. Through this understanding, the social worker would be in a position to assist Lisa to bring back a sense of security through trust building. Therapy Model Before addressing the consequences of any disorder or disease, it must be diagnosed for proper analysis and recommendation. Studies show that family therapy model is an effective tool of addressing psychological problems such as depression, digestive disorders, chronic disorders, drug abuse, issues related to parenting, and issues that come about in relationships. Family therapy is effective as compared to other traditional therapies because it involves all family members in resolving issues affecting them. Scholars in the field of mental health appreciate the role of family therap y meaning that they also endorse family and marriage therapists to conduct diagnosis. Some observe that there is no adequate literature in the field of family and marriage therapy, which prevents effective diagnosis. Moreover, misunderstanding the process of assessment and diagnosis among family therapists is another reason cited. Assessment and diagnosis Assessment refers to the treatment process of identifying the signs and symptoms, which are associated with mental and emotional disorders. The disorders are then compared with the standardized disorders. It should be noted that the treatment process should be based on the health condition of the patient because patients differ based on their coping abilities. The therapist develops a treatment plan after completing the process of diagnosis. The treatment plan helps in the process of alleviating the symptoms. Some instruments are utilized in the process of diagnosis and measuring the condition of the patient, including psychometric instruments (Kreppner, 2005). Family therapy is a process that uses systemic and relational theories in diagnosing and treating patients, including couples, family members, and families in general. Treatment plan and intervention strategies Practitioners in the field of counselling employ a number of trauma treatment models and strategies. Trauma-informed assessment is one of the intervention strategies that could be used to deal with issues facing Lisa. This means that the role of each actor is important. Therefore, a critical review should be conducted to determine the role of each person as far as managing a traumatic event or situation is concerned. Based on this, it is true that each person has a role to play in initiating trauma-informed practices (Stevens, Smith, 2013). To support traumatized individuals, such as Lisa, certain terms should be evaluated in detail. Counsellors and specialized psychologists should change their approach in terms of addressing the problems that traumatized individual go through. Ethical and legal considerations Psychological code of conduct demands that counsellors observe the set rules and regulations in addressing issues facing their clients. For instance, they should not share critical information with other third party agents. Any given discussed in the treatment room should not be exposed to any person. Regarding legal considerations, the methods that a psychologist decides to apply should be compliant with the internationally and nationally recognized standards. References Barraca, J., Yarto, L., Olea, J. (2000). Psychometric properties of a new family life satisfaction scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 16(2), 98Ã¢â¬â100. Caldwell, B., Woolley, S., Caldwell, C. (2007). Preliminary estimates of cost-effectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(3), 392Ã¢â¬â406. Kreppner, K. (2005). Family assessment and methodological issues: Discussion. European Journal of Psy chological Assessment, 21(4), 249Ã¢â¬â254. Murphy, J.J. (2008). Solution-focused counselling in schools (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counselling Association. Stevens, P., Smith, R. L. (2013). Substance abuse counselling: Theory and practice (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. This case study on Substance Abuse Assessment and Intervention Plan was written and submitted by user Madilynn Cortez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
5 Simple Ways to Building a Great Reputation at Work Your good reputation is something you should start to cultivate right out of the gate in your first job, and continue to build and protect throughout your career. The better your reputation, the easier it will be for you to move up and keep going in the direction of your dreams. Here areÃ 5 simple ways to building a great reputation at work so you can continue to cultivate your reputation and move up in the world.1. Earn before you askYou know youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to do good work and be an asset. You also know youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to need to ask for a favor now and then- some PTO, an extra privilege. Have a bit of patience and wait to ask for these perks until youÃ¢â¬â¢ve really proven yourself. Show your reliability and donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask for anything until youÃ¢â¬â¢ve earned it. Down the line, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find you have much more leeway.2. Take initiativeTackle that big project without being asked to do so first. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t always get specific assignments, and you certainl y wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get graded feedback. Think beyond your immediate to-do list and figure out what you could do to help the company- and yourself grow. Sometimes this is as simple as cleaning out the supply closet and earning a few brownie points.3. Be tactfulEven when youÃ¢â¬â¢re right, itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to couch your opinions with a bit of politicking and humility. Wait to bluster around until youÃ¢â¬â¢ve earned that position with battle-tested experience. At the beginning at least, be tactful and try not to come off as an insufferable know-it-all.4. Keep work first with work friendsSome of your best adulthood friends will be friends you make in the workplace. But keep in mind that, at least while you work together, these are professional relationships first and foremost. Even if the company seems totally close-knit, donÃ¢â¬â¢t leap into intimate secret telling too quickly. Let it happen naturally. Keep your cards a bit closer to your chest until youÃ¢â¬â¢re on more solid groun d.5. Get it doneAsking for help and getting clarifying instructions from your supervisor is a great idea, particularly in your first few weeks, and particularly when youÃ¢â¬â¢re still learning the ropes. But after a certain amount of time, you need to learn when to just figure it out and get it done, rather than running to your boss. Remember, they hired you to do the job, not so they could hold your hand.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
FOOD - Research Paper Example Starting simple could mean inviting neighbors and friends to a simple dinner or meal using local products; or it could also mean assigning days within a week to focus on consuming local produce. Trying to connect with local farmers would necessitate going around the locality and finding out what products are being sourced from farms and which could be availed easily. Likewise, one could even try to grow simple vegetables in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s backyard; which was also noted to be, not only healthy; but also therapeutic. And finally, the effort of implementing a local diet in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle should not be made in stressful environment. One must simply enjoy discovering local farms and products and be able to savor the local produce which could be incorporated in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily meal. Are there farmers' markets in your area? There is actually a Farmers Market in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s area in New Jersey; which is specifically located in South Jersey, just 20 minutes away from Philadelphia, Pe nnsylvania. All vegetables are therefore bought from the Farmers Market. Where is the nearest community supported agriculture farm (CSA)? The state of New Jersey has a lot of community supported agriculture (CSA) farm located in the following counties: Atlantic, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, Salem, Sussex, and Warren (State of New Jersey: Department of Agriculture, 2013). The names, contact information, and addresses are found in the State of New JerseyÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Agriculture official website. How could you encourage others to eat local? Other people could be encouraged to eat local by promoting the various benefits that could be gained from this move. From among the noted benefits, the following are noteworthy: (1) greater opportunities to lose weight; (2) savoring new flavor sensations; (3) being able to heighten awareness through learning more about local products (Priebe, 2011); (4) fresher and he althier foods; (5) learn more about food from the people who grew them; (6) contributes to lesser environmental impact through lessening of carbon footprint through travelling less, consumer lesser gas, lesser wear and tear of roads; and (7) supports the community through the revenues generated from local purchases (Shea, 2008). Global Food Crisis After reading the article, "Global Food Crisis" from this unit's studies, do you feel the U.S. ethanol fuel program is adding to the world food crisis? One is convinced that the arguments exposed by Gawain Kripke, the Senior Policy Adviser for Oxfam America is more convincing regarding the effect of the ethanol fuel program on the global food crisis. KripkeÃ¢â¬â¢s detailed explanation that production of ethanol is apparently significantly contributory to driving food prices up due to the increased use of corn for the production of ethanol is more viable and believable (Kripke, 2008). As compared to the arguments presented by Rick Tolman, the CEO of the National Association of Corn Growers, Kripke assumed a more unbiased stance at looking at the issue. Tolman could have protected the
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Si chuan earthquake - Essay Example ion System, reveals that most of the local governments in China lacked the Decision Support System for daily management; thus, even during emergency situation, they did not have this crucial tool. (Liu & Ren, 2009). This evidence supports my argument because it shows that there was no preparedness to handle emergency situations such as earthquake. Decision Support System is a crucial tool in handling management and emergency issues; hence, it should not lack in local government because earthquake is prone in rural areas (Liu et al, 2006). An article on the China Earthquake Geospatial Research Portal suggests that it was possible to predict the magnitude, and in addition, former researcher, Geng Qingguo of Institute of Geophysics claims that he handed a confidential written report about his prediction of the earthquake to the State Seismological Bureau (Pekevski & Mavrodiev, 2008). This article is essential in providing evidence because it reveals that the necessary agencies were warned of the impending earthquake disaster, but they failed to take necessary actions. Thus, they also failed to establish adequate preparedness to minimize loss of lives and property destruction. Finally, a two year UNICEF report dated May 2010 also indicates that much could have been done to create preparedness, for example, aligning emergency response initiatives or programs with upstream policy programs (UNICEF, 2010). This report reveals that there were no policies in place to deal with such emergencies, for instance, enhancing intervention in emergency situations require coordination of emergency programs with policy initiatives, which were lacking in this case. I will still need to get evidence on statistical data regarding the degree of loss of lives and connect it with poor preparedness. I will also need to get evidence on what the government authorities say about the predictions and their level of preparedness. These I will get from the Chinese government departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Timeless Theme Of Luther John Osborne John Osbornes Luther, which debuted in London in 1961, is a drama with a historical setting and a timeless theme. As Osborne told an interviewer in 1961 (as quoted in Alan Carters John Osborne), I wanted to write a play about religious experience and various other things, and this happened to be the almost incidental. The play focuses on Martin Luther, the sixteenth-century monk who publicly spoke out against age-old practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, thus beginning the Protestant Reformation. Osborne, however, focuses on Martin Luthers intensely personal reaction to his religion, his faith, and his God; the transformations he wrought in Europe exist more as an aside in this drama. As he did in earlier works, such as his groundbreaking Look Back in Anger, Osborne profiles an individual in conflict with authority, which in Martin Luthers case is the vast authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In posting his 95 theses, Luther risked inevitable excommunication and brought the wrath of the highest church leaders, including Pope Leo X, upon him. He did this despite his uncertainty about what would come next, for, as he tells Cajetan at the Diet of Worms (a city in Germany) about the Roman Catholic Church, A withered arm is best amputated, an infected place is best s coured out, and so you pray for healthy tissue and something sturdy and clean that was crumbling and full of filth. Osborne dramatically depicts how Martin Luther followed his convictions in the face of great doubts, and so transformed Christianity forever. Plot overview Act 1 Luther is set in Germany during the 1500s and follows several important events in the life of Martin Luther, the religious reformer, instigator of the Protestant Reformation, and founder of the Lutheran faith. Act 1 opens at the convent of the Augustinian Order of Eremites in Erfurt, Germany, in 1506. In the presence of the other members of the convent and his disapproving father, Luther is received into the order. After the oath has been sworn, Luthers father, Hans, complains of his sons choice. Later, after his father has left, the monks gather for their meal; Luther has the job of waiting on the others. A reader lectures the men on their duties to God, doing His good works, and the rules they must follow. The men then make their confessions, but while most of the monks confess to trifling sins, Luther continually castigates himself harshly, calling himself a worm, and sharing visions that are filled with images of sex and violence. At the end, Luther has a fit and has to be dragged away by two other monks. Scene 2 takes place one year later as Luther is about to perform his first mass. Beforehand, he talks with Brother Weinand about his doubts, revealing that he still feels envy and impatience, and that he believes that God hates him. Weinand says it is not God who is angry with Luther but Luther who is angry with Him. Scene 3 focuses on the meeting between Luther and his father, Hans, following Luthers mass. Hans still cannot understand why Luther would give up earthly pleasures such as fortune and family life to become a monk. Hans suggests that Luther only became a monk through fear, the result of a promise made during a thunderstorm. Act 2 Act 2 opens at the marketplace in JÃ »terbog in 1517, where John Tetzel is selling indulgences. Scene 1 is Tetzels monologue exhorting people to buy the indulgences and ensure their swift assent to heaven. Scene 2 shifts to the Eremite Cloister in Wittenberg, where Luther talks with his mentor, Johann Von Staupitz. Through the conversation, Luthers scholarly success (he has earned a doctorate in theology) is revealed, as are his continuing doubts and discontent. Luther has become obsessed with the rules of his order, according to Von Staupitz, because it protects him from admitting that he cannot submit to anyones authority but his own. Stauptiz points out that Luther demands from himself an impossible standard of perfection and notes that he has been unable to keep all his vows but that God should still grant him salvation because of his love of Christ. Von Staupitz also talks about the Dukes annoyance with Luthers sermons against indulgences. Scene 3 shows Luther arriving with his 95 theses at the Castle Church in Wittenberg. In a monologue, he gives a sermon to the crowds, telling the common people there is no security in the purchase of indulgences and repudiating the idea that doing good works leads to personal salvation. The works are just if the man is just, he says. If a man doesnt believe in Christ, not only are his sins mortal, but his good works. Scene 4 takes place at the Fugger Palace in Augsburg in October 1518 as Cajetan, a church leader, confronts Luther about his actions. Cajetan explains to Luther the popes three demands: he must retract his sermons, not spread his ideas in the future, and stop causing disturbances among the church. Despite Cajetan telling Luther that his actions threaten the unity of Christendom, Luther will not retract. Cajetan has no choice but to refer this difficult matter to the pope. Scene 5 takes place in a hunting lodge in northern Italy in 1519. Pope Leo X reads a letter he has received from Luther in which Luther says he will not retract his theses. The pope sends a letter to Cajetan that excommunicates Luther and banishes him from Germany. Scene 6 takes place at the Elster Gate in Wittenberg in 1520. In this brief monologue, Luther reveals that he has been served excommunication papers. He burns this paper, called the papal bull. Act 3 Act 3 opens on April 18, 1521, at the Diet of Worms, where Germanys Christian princes have called Luther to ask if he will retract the beliefs he espouses in his books dissenting with church doctrine. Luther explains that his writings fall into three categories: the first deal with certain values of faith and morality that both his supporters and his enemies agree are harmless; the second group attack the power that has tyrannized Germany; the third criticizes the enemies of his religion, even if they are holy individuals, and defends the teaching of Christ. Luther declares that he cannot retract any of these works, for to retract the first group would be to condemn the things that those in favor and those against Luther agree upon; to retract the second group would be to invite more tyranny on Germany; to retract the third group would be to allow such situations to continue. Luther asks if anyone can expose his errors through Scripture; if this can be done, he will retract his books . Von Eck refuses his proposal. Do reasons have to be given to anyone who cares to ask a question? he asks. Why, if anyone who questioned the common understanding of the church on any matter he liked to raise, and had to be answered irrefutably from the Scriptures, there would be nothing certain or decided in Christendom. Von Eck further points out that Luthers disobedience threatens the stability of the church by casting doubt upon it, yet Luther refuses to recant. Scene 2 takes place in Wittenberg in 1525. Luther and the Knight speak of the Peasants Movement, a revolt which had begun the previous year and which was quickly suppressed. The peasants had been encouraged by Luthers ideas of independence, but the Knights speech reveals that Luther opposed the peasants. The Knight tells Luther that he could have brought freedom and order if he had stood on their side, but Luther explains his lack of involvement because [T]heres no such thing as an orderly revolution. The Knight accuses Luther of siding with the princes and killing the spirit of independence he had helped foster. Luther, growing angry, says that the peasants deserved to die because they ignored authority. At end of the scene, with the Knight watching, Luther marries former nun Katherine Von Bora. Scene 3, the final scene of the play, returns to the Eremite Cloister, twenty-four years after Luther joined the order. It is no longer a monastery but Luthers home, where he lives with his wife and six children. Von Staupitz joins them for a meal, and the two men discuss all that has happened since Luther posted his theses: the development of Germany and the German language, and the accessibility of Christianity to the common people. After hearing Luthers repudiation of the Peasants War, Von Staupitz asks Luther not to believe that he is the only one who is ever right. Von Staupitz departs, and Katherine enters the room, carrying their young son, Hans, and Luther takes him from her. THEMES Themes Loss of Faith Martin Luthers religious crisis-and the resulting Protestant Reformation-stemmed from his loss of faith in the teachings and practices of the church. Osborne does not analyze the social, political, and economic causes of the religious reformation that swept Europe in the 1500s; instead, he focuses on Luthers personal struggle. Luther takes action, posting the 95 theses, that makes him the first protestant, but even before this, his doubt is evident. The man who joins the monastery is prone to despair, histrionics, and self-castigation. His anxiety arises from his uncertainty about the vows that he upholds. Eventually, Luthers doubts about Roman Catholic doctrine, as well as his disgust for the moral laxity of church leaders, lead him to reject both. Yet, even when doing so, Luther is not certain of his actions. As he reveals to Von Staupitz decades later, he waited a day to answer the questions posed at the Diet of Worms because he was not sure: I listened for Gods voice, but all I c ould hear was my own. It is important to remember, however, that Luthers rejection of the church does not equate with a rejection of God. When called to the Diet of Worms to recant his beliefs, Luther refuses to do so because his conscience is captured by Gods own word. Upon receiving the papal bull excommunicating him, Luther asks God for help. I rely on no man, only on you, he says. My God, my God do you hear me? Are you dead? Are you dead? No, you cant die. You can only hide yourself, cant you? Luthers doubts in Gods ability to help him in his isolation are clearly expressed here as are his belief in Gods eternal presence. By the end of the play, which takes place toward the end of Luthers life, Luther demonstrates far less doubt about his relationship with God. In sharing the story of Isaac and Abraham, he emphasizes mans obedience to God. In a conversation with Von Staupitz regarding the rebellion of the Peasants War, he declares, for there is no power but of God: the powers th at be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resistant that power resistant the ordinance of God. In these words, Luther implies more certainty than in previous years, for if he had actually showed the obedience that he exalts, he never would have rebelled against the church and its practices and leaders. Father-Son Relationships Martin Luthers relationships with the various father figures in his life each present their own set of complexities. His attitude toward these ties is best summed up by his words in act 1: I suppose fathers and sons always disappoint each other. His father, Hans, is a driving force in his life. The play suggests that one reason that Luther became a monk was to get away from his fathers domination. Hans wanted his son to become a lawyer or a magistrate, anything but a priest, a profession that takes him away from the material world. Hans believes that his son chose to become a monk because he has given up and needs to run away from life. Luther, however, tells his father, All you want is me to justify you, clearly showing that he feels like a pawn for his father, one with the purpose of fulfilling the older mans expectations. This relationship remains difficult throughout Luthers life; as he reveals to Von Staupitz in the final scene, He [Hans] was never pleased about anything I did. . . . Only when Katie and I were married and she got pregnant. Then he was pleased. This revelation suggests that Hans is also concerned with the continuation of his family line, which can only be carried on by Luther since his other two sons died in the plague. Luthers relationship with his spiritual Father is as difficult if not more so. At various points throughout the play, Luther entreats God for guidance and casts himself as a helpless child. After his excommunication, Luther sees himself as a lost child, a stillbirth, and pleads with God to [B]reathe into me . . . yes, my mighty fortress, breathe into me. Give me life, oh Lord. Give me life. In this instance, God takes on the role of the father, creating the son. At other times, Luther rebels against God, much as he rebels against his earthly father. To this Luther, God is an angry being, one who demanded my love and made it impossible to return it. Another father figure exists for Luther: Von Staupitz. Like a father, the older theologian tries to set Luther on an easier path than the one he consistently seeks for himself. By the plays final scene, Luther openly refers to Von Staupitz as Father and asks questions that children are likely to ask of their parents, such as Are you pleased with me? The play ends on yet another representation of the father-son relationship: Luther is holding his young son, appropriately named Hans. Resistance to Authority As Luther resists the authority of his father, he also resists the authority of the church but with far greater consequences. The church leaders, parroting the beliefs of the pope-the highest religious authority expect complete allegiance; Luther must not question church doctrine. I ask you: says Von Eck at the Diet of Worms, dont throw doubt on the most holy, orthodox faith . . . This faith has been defined by sacred councils, and confirmed by the church. It is your heritage, and we are forbidden to dispute it by the laws of the emperor and the pontiff. While in earlier scenes, Luther has been seen adhering too strictly to the rules of his order, as Von Staupitz points out, in the words of Herbert Goldstone writing in Coping with Vulnerability, Luther actually ridicules authority to set himself up as the only authority capable of determining his relationship to God. In doing so, Luther challenges the church hierarchy that forces regular people to deal with God through the mediation of a priest; in the case of a priest, the pope and other high church officials are the mediators. In his letter to Pope Leo X, Luther shows his own sense of self-importance when it comes to religious matters. Luther alone dares protest the complaints that the German people hold about the avarice of the priests. While everyone else is too filled with terror at the popes reaction, Luther strives to protect the glory of Christianity by publishing his 95 theses on the Castle Church in Wittenberg. And now, most holy father, the whole world has gone up in flames, he writes, but, a mere few lines later, Luther asks the pope for his help because Luther is far too insignificant to appear before the world in a matter as great as this. Luthers words are seemingly disingenuous, particularly so for a man of his superior intellect and sensitivity, as he has recently elected him as the one person to stand up and defend God and His purity. Luther grows more conservative in his views, particularly b y 1525, when he critiques the failed Peasants War, which his religious rebellion helped spark. However, he still flouts the authority of the clergy by marrying, notably, a former nun. He also nostalgically looks back on his former actions, telling his young son, You should have seen me at Worms. . . . I have come to set a man against his father, I said, and they listened to me. STYLE Epic Theater Most critics agreed that Luther aimed at being epic drama along the lines of the work of German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Epic theater is a form of drama that presents a series of loosely connected scenes. Often, a narrator figure will address the audience with analysis or argument. As practiced by Brecht, epic theater sought to use alienating effects to cause the audience to think objectively, not emotionally, about the play and its characters. In technique, Luther shows a strong Brechtian influence, notably, that of his play The Life of Galileo. Like Brechts drama, Luther is a series of short scenes, most of which could function as stand-alone units. The stage decorations, which Osborne clearly describes, are evocative and imbued with symbolism and iconography. A choral figure, in this case the Knight, announces the time and setting of each scene and narrates background details particularly concerning Luthers role in the Peasants War. Osborne, like Brecht, also wanted to portray contemporary social problems and realities on stage; in Luther, the title character is the Angry Young Man of 1960s British society, a young man who feels rage at the established sociopolitical system in which he lives. While many critics saw Luther as epic theater, scholar Simon Trussler staunchly disagreed with this assessment. In his Plays of John Osborne, applying Brechts criteria that epic theater appeals less to the feelings than to the spectators reason, he contended that the play is dramatic rather than epic, for Luthers primary appeal is indeed emotional rather than rational. Symbolism Perhaps the most notable symbolism that Osborne uses in Luther is Luthers poor physical health. He suffers from seizures, insomnia, boils, and chronic constipation. His pains express his mental battles, and his inability to purge himself bodily represents his difficulty breaking free from the churchs beliefs. Luther himself views his religious upheavals in terms of the physical body. For example, in his discussion with Von Staupitz, just before he posts his 95 theses, Luther likens himself to a ripe stool in the worlds straining anus, and at any moment were about to let each other go. When he finally formulates his own doctrine (that salvation is based only on faith in God and not on good works), it is while experiencing another bout of constipation; with the realization that The just shall live by faith, Luther recalls, [M]y pain vanished, my bowels flushed and I could get up. On another level, however, as Alan Carter pointed out in John Osborne, To show Martins constipation, his in digestion, his excessive perspiration, is to show him as an ordinary human being. A man who would appeal to the earthy German peasantry, and who would be able to incite them to action. He is a direct contrast to the effeminate, sophisticated Latin churchmen of the period. This common folk appeal is important for, as the Knight points out, Luther helped the people begin to believe in an image as Christ as a man as we are . . . that His supper is a plain meal like their own . . . a plain meal with no garnish and no word. Narrative Luther does not have a strong narrative drive in the traditional sense; encompassing several decades, it does not tell the complete story behind Luthers protest. Alan Carter wrote in John Osborne that because Osborne is weakest as a story-teller, he makes the play resemble a medieval historical pageant, full of vivid theatrical moments. The play in its entirety shows explicit change in Luthers development of a more personal relationship with God and implicit change in the references to the transformation his beliefs have brought to Germany. The narrative drive focuses more on Luthers interior battles with his own lack of faith than exterior battles with church leaders. CRITICAL OVERVIEW Critical overview Luther was Osbornes second consecutive historical play, and English audiences who had, for the most part, failed to respond to the first (A Subject of Scandal and Concern) were very curious to see how it would fare. For the most part, it was declared a success by the public and the critics alike, creating as much of an impact as Look Back in Anger had. Kenneth Tynan, writing for The Observer (quoted in Alan Carters John Osborne), described the play as the most eloquent piece of dramatic writingto have dignified out theatre since Look Back in Anger. While some reviewers contended that the play was not historical enough, other critics welcomed Osbornes more universal portrayal of Luther as a rebel to whom audiences of any period could relate. Carter, as well, wrote in his study John Osborne that while Luther had a historical setting, its theme was quite modern. In 1963, Luther went on to a welcoming reception in the United States, where it was widely hailed and appreciated for its univ ersal themes. It won several awards, including a Tony for best play of the 1963-64 season. Luther also solidified Osbornes international reputation. Since its debut, and as Osbornes stature continued to rise, many scholars have examined Luther with regard to how it fit in with themes and characters in the playwrights body of work. Herbert Goldstone wrote in Coping with Vulnerability that Luther presents still another variation on success failure as seen in one of Osbornes earlier plays, The Entertainer. He also compares Luther to Jimmy Porter, the hero of Osbornes pivotal Look Back in Anger, in both characters need to be different from others. However, Goldstone also pointed out that, unlike Osbornes earlier characters, Luther attempts to cope with his feeling of helplessness and despair in realizing himself . . . openly and forcefully, both privately and publicly. Katharine J. Worth wrote in her 1963 article The Angry Young Man that Luther was also the first of Osbornes heroes to b e shown in conflict with his intellectual equals. She forecast that the play marks a new phase in Osbornes dramatic art. Its increased range and flexibility suggest interesting possibilities for his future development. In 2001, Luther was re-produced on the London stage; even forty years later, Osbornes words were stirring and powerful. This is a big, angry, eloquent play, wrote John Peter in the Times (London). Seeing it again after so long, what impresses me is how deeply Osborne had immersed himself in his subject without making his play ponderous. Like their predecessors, several critics also noted the timelessness of the piece, which showed that Osborne was, in the words of Michael Billington writing in the Guardian, far more than a chronicler of contemporary anger.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Oedipus: Fate is Unavoidable No matter what anyone tries, no matter what anyone does, no matter what anyone believes they have accomplished, they have not controlled fate. Fate is uncontrollable. Much like betting on a Ã ³sure thingÃ ² and knowing in the back of your mind that there are infinite factors in the outcome--anything could happen. ItÃ ¹s unfortunate that the people of Ancient Greece sanctioned the concept of fate. In the Era of Enlightenment the idea of God-controlled fate was finally challenged with the notion of self-fulfilled destiny; until then, men turned to prophets and oracles. In the play Oedipus, by Sophocles, there was a ongoing synergy between fate and knowledge that was constantly rejected. Oedipus, the main character, struggled to dominate his own destiny, but ironically fell back into his bizarre misfortune that was in the end, inevitable. Misfortune, false realities, deception: all a result of Oedipus knowing too much and at the same time too little of his true lot in life. Knowledge was what nurtured him into false pretenses. Knowledge was a false pretense. By knowing that his parents were out of harms way, namely his, he knew that his prophecy would not come true. He knew that as long as his father was still alive and he was married to a woman not even related to his mother, he would not bear the offspring that Ã ³men would shudder to look upon.Ã ² It was the epitome of irony for Oedipus to know his fate, and try to avoid it with the Ã ³knowledgeÃ ² that he had obtained: "My father was Polybus of Corinth, my mother the Dorian Merope, and I was held the foremost man in all that town until a thing happened- -a thing to startle a man, though not to make him angry as it made me. We were sitting at the table, and a man who had drunk too much cried out that I was not my fatherÃ ¹s son--and I, though angry, restrained my anger for that day; but the next day went to my father and my mother and questioned them. They were indignant at the taunt and that comforted me--and yet the manÃ ¹s words rankled...I sought where I might escape those infamous things--the doom that was laid upon me." When Oedipus fled from his parents, he started the chain reaction of ironic happenstance that would eventually direct him in a complete circle back
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Politics are all about power, and authority. The government is about owning and running services, such as mining, steel, energy, forestry, telephones, television stations, and airlines (Henslin, 2011). The United States has adopted many socialist practices. The most obvious is the government taking money from some individuals to pay for benefits of other. The government has complete control over all aspects of our lives. They control from food, housing, imports, exports the whole mighty dollar. The government has put the United States in debt and put more AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s on the street with a failing economy. Inflation has hit many of us, currently gas is $4.09 people are no longer being able to afford to drive their vehicles. I have an Avalanche and it cost me nearly $100+ dollars to fill up. I can remember when we paid $1.98. The government controls petroleum and chooses not to dig in our own back yards but in foreign countries. Communities impact political voices we have a choice in whom we may choose to elect to represent our states and our nation, the candidates all seek the majority votes. Communities can have an impact of what is creation of new laws and bills. Technology plays a big role in politics now. The introductions of technologies make an impact on American politics. With Facebook, twitter, YouTube, media groups are playing major roles in the election of candidates and our presidents. There is a GOP internet forum FreeRepublic and MoveOn that are political communities (Davy, 2010). Marriage and Family That family is so significant to humanity that it is universal-every human group in the world organizes its members in families. Western civilization regards family as husband, wife, and children, other groups of family are polygamist. Marriage is a groups approved mating arrangements, usually marked by a ritual of some sort and now marriage in no only man and woman but now there is approved same-sex marriages (Hensil, 2010) I think that marriage and family a two very important things in life that keep a healthy relationship in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Now and days I just see so many people just laying down and making babies instead of having values and morals with being married before the kids come. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t say all marriages will last because I was married at 20 and we did not last very long at all. Marriage and family can impact economics and community because people who are married tend to be better off than single and cohabiting parents (Kaye, Lerman, (n.d.)). In recent years technology can destroy a marriage and family because of these social websites. Then with economically there are so many layoffs and few jobs that it too has made an impact on families and a loss of a job and pull a marriage apart because of financial issues. Education Many Jobs require you to have the skills before you are allowed to work. Just like Doctors display their credentials (Henslin, 2010). Education helps us students in seeking higher positions and employment. I believe that we are getting educated from the time that we are born until the time we are no longer able to comprehend new information. We have to get an education to get better jobs if we would like to make good money in a failing economy. For me I got tired of living off of tips or from pay check to paycheck because the cost of living has risen and to survive you need to get an education to get a higher paying position. There are advantages in education it economically stables a country. There are competitive advantages over other economies. Employers want workers who are more productive and who will require less management (Radcliffe, 2012). The advances in technology are so far advanced that children and adults are being educated through various apps, websites, and cyber classrooms. It also changes the productivity in an industrialized world. Increased productivity means increased revenue. * Module 7 is targeting the technological impact on all pillars. Be sure to complete the last column during Module 7 before you submit the assignment to the instructor. For the Ã¢â¬Å"impact of technologyÃ¢â¬ column, please explain how technology has impacted each of the four pillars on the matrix. References Henslin, J. (2011). Essentials of Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon Davy, Steven. (2010). How Technology Changed American Politics in the Internet Age. Retrieved June 20, 2013 from http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2010/04/how-technology-changed-american-politics-in-the-internet-age096 Kaye, K., & Lerman, R. (n.d.) Effects of Marriage on Family Economic Well-Being. Retrieved June 20, 2013 from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/marriage-well-being03/summary.htm Radcliffe, B. (2012). How Education and training Affect Economy. Retrieved June 20, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/09/education-training-advantages.asp